How to identify risks in debt funds

Whatsapp share
Tweet it out
Share on FB
Post on LinkedIn
risks in debt funds

Our comprehensive report yesterday gave you a detailed list of funds across AMCs with higher credit or concentration risk in each category. With the help of our MF review tool and the pointers we gave you, we hope you identified the ones you need to move out of. If you have not, please read the article here if you are a subscriber or subscribe today to ensure you are with the right debt funds. 

Despite the detailed effort, it is not a fool-proof list as there may be risks even in AAA or AA+ rated instruments that we don’t know yet. Also, this exercise may have to be repeated, for every fund you hold and every fund you add. So it becomes important to identify risks. 

Identifying risks in debt funds

Many of you ask us on how to identify these risks. Truth is, it is extremely hard. We will list down some of the points here and you will know why.

  • Credit risk can be extremely fruitful in a high growth periods of the economy, providing steady accrual, no negative returns, low volatility and so on. At such times, a fund’s performance entirely masks risks, whatever ratios or metrics you use. This is why many fund ratings fail to capture it oftentimes and you end up picking them. It takes severe NAV hits for a rating system to show the impact or it takes careful construction of weights to capture changing credit movements in a fund. A rating exercise using performance metrics alone is a postmortem unless returns are steadily rolled every day to capture changes.
  • Defining credit risk is very hard. SEBI has categorized it as those with AA+ rating and above. But papers that were AAA-rated like IL&FS turned bad. Papers that were AAA or AA+ and liquid like DHFL lost their liquidity in no time. Hence, how do you wish to define credit risk?
  • Even assuming that you carefully scrutinize portfolios every month, it is not easy for you to identify different papers that may actually belong to the same group and hence up group concentration. IL&FS, DHFL and Essel (Zee group) are classic examples. There continue to be such instances of myriad papers belonging to the same group. In order to identify them, you will need to pull out their rating rationales and make the connection.
  • Liquidity risks can show up with climbing redemption of a fund. This can sometimes happen in matter of days and weeks and not in a month end when portfolio data is available. Similarly, when a fund has high negative net cash it may suggest borrowing for meeting redemptions. But negative net receivables can occur for other reasons such as a fund using interest rate derivatives. It is not easy to identify real risks.

The above will tell you that it takes time and effort to unearth risks in debt funds. So it is a difficult task auditing this. Instead, first define what risk means to you, in debt.

Answer to yourself this question – why are you in a debt fund?

  1. If it is to get FD-like steady returns with no falls – stick to overnight or liquid funds over and above deposits. There is almost nil credit risk here and little volatility related to bond price movements.
  2. If it is for asset allocation with your long-term equity portfolio – gilt funds, high-quality bond funds/PSU bond funds (of different average maturities, depending on your timeframe) would do. This is what we have done with our 7-year plus portfolio. Should you up the risks that you are already taking in equity by going for riskier debt funds? For most of you, ‘yes’ will not be the answer to this question. So don’t try to aim for high returns at all times.
  3. If you are in debt funds for tax efficiency or higher returns than FD – ask yourself whether you can handle declines and volatility in returns in debt. If yes, can you wait long enough for a recovery? If you cannot, stick to what we mentioned in point 2. Choose the category based on your time frame.
  4. If you are still a risk taker – yes, take the risk by investing in a credit-heavy fund. But first understand what risk you are taking and keep a long time frame for accruals to heal the wounds of downgrade in a fund’s debt papers.

Even then, you may have the misfortune of deep hits like the case of ABSL Medium Term or ABSL Dynamic Bond or closure of Franklin India Ultra Short Bond. This, even if you had stayed with the fund for 5-10 years! Such a risk, even time cannot heal. So again, understand what you are getting into. If you have high risk funds in debt, ensure that you have some emergency funds in safe options.

Check out our review tool!

Our MF review tool will keep your portfolios in ship-shape. With specific buy-sell-hold ratings for funds, you’ll always know where you stand. Try it today!

What is the way out?

The general guidelines given above will help you be better prepared in debt fund investments. Over and above these, the tips below will help you manage your investments better.

  • Keep exposure to even high quality funds at 10-25% of your overall MF investments. This will de-risk your portfolio and shield it from unforeseen, one-off events.
  • Diversify across fund houses. Unlike equity, duplication of strategy does not matter with debt. An AMC’s  ability to handle liquidity crisis may vary. AMCs also tend to hold similar papers across their funds, so trouble in one paper can affect multiple funds.
  • Any hint of credit risk in funds meant for less than 2 years is best avoided. (check our definition of what is credit risk in the ultra short/low duration/money market categories in our earlier report)
  • For other categories where you see risks but you are happy with fund performance, keep exposure to less than 10% if your time frame is over 3 years. Exit if your time frame is shorter than this.
  • Government bonds and most PSU bonds suggest better liquidity. If your fund portfolio is filled with these, there will be interest rate volatility but your money will be safe as the volatility settles with passage of time.
  • Keep watch of any sharp decline in your fund AUM size across months. Some volatility in AUM is inevitable in liquid and ultra-short (and similar) categories as corporate treasury money constantly moves in and out of these funds.
  • When you enter credit risk category, know that you are taking far higher risks than perhaps even equity. In our opinion, it is not worthwhile.
  • When your wealth growing years moves to an income requirement phase, it is best to shift most of your money to deposit and government schemes. There is no such thing as 100% capital preservation in debt funds.

Having said all this, we also wish to say that it is important  to stay grounded and not panic into entirely moving out of your debt funds. You may incur huge taxes and exit loads. If your fund holds a majority in high-quality debt, either of AAA-rated corporates, PSU companies, banks, other government institutions and so on, your fund has minimal risk.

We will be following debt funds for both risk and return parameters and will also closely watch for AUM falls and redemption pressures. If we see risks going up, we will sound you off on them.

Still, we cannot be invincible! We can identify performance dips well. We can identify most risks but not all. It is hard for us to identify sudden liquidity pressure triggered by redemptions. We can never identify risks such as a fund house closing down flagship schemes suddenly. 😊 But we will try to do this to the best of our knowledge and ability.

Please keep yourself updated on all our articles to stay with good products.

Post script

Other reports we have done on the fallout of Franklin Templeton’s debt fund closures are as follows: 

buy hold sell
Share via Whatsapp
Tweet it out
Share on FB
Post on LinkedIn

More like this

Please note that any specific queries on any of our recommendations will be answered ONLY through email. If you are a subscriber, please mail  Only general queries or discussions will be answered through the comment section of the blog. For full details, please refer to this post – How to communicate with PrimeInvestor.

8 thoughts on “How to identify risks in debt funds”

  1. Hi
    Assuming the debt holdings of debt MFs are marked to market, why can’t MFs divest the lower grade paper during these difficult times? If they claim they cannot sell it without a loss, then it is not marked to market. Right? How do you explain this conundrum?

    1. There is no conundrum. There is a difference between the itrinsic value of a paper and its market value (derived from liqudiity). Take ETF. There is an NAV and there is a market price. Why are these 2 not the same for many ETFS? Because the market price is determined in addition by demand supply. The same applies to debt papers. And remember, not all debt papers are valued daily. Only papers regularly traded in the market are – well – ‘valued’ by the market. thanks, Vidya

      1. Here is the conundrum I wanted to highlight: The price at which the investments are valued for the calculation of NAV is called market price (M-t-M). However, in the same breadth, they say it cannot be sold at that price and if they try the price will fall. How is that then a market price? If I have an apartment for sale and if I say the market price of the apartment is Rs.3 Crs, I should be able to sell it at Rs.3 Crs. If it can be sold only at Rs.2.5 Crs, then that is the market price. My opinion.

        1. Sir, you value your assets at the market value until you realise it’s worth (at Rs 2.5 crore) by selling. And such value could be be because you had no takers at that point; not necessarily because your house was in bad condition 🙂 So the new value is Rs 2.5 crore. It is the same. Please remember, when a paper see little to no trades, the valuation (by valuation agencies) is simply the residual interest income from the instrument, until its risks go up (when it is downgraded). thanks, Vidya

  2. Hi Bhavana,

    it is safe to invest in Money market fund now? What is practical different between Money market, Liquid & ultrashort term fund.
    i noticed in all this Debt mess discussion money market fund are not coming into picture. Compare to Liquid & Ultra short term are Money market more safe? Or which are safest among these three?

    1. Bhavana Acharya

      Hello sir,

      We club ultra short, low duration, money market, and floater when we do our ratings, recommendations or look at ‘ultra short’ in general. You will see it, for example, Our other article on risks in debt funds.

      Money market funds overall do not normally have credit risk. They necessarily have to invest only in CPs, CDs and treasury bills and cannot go to other instruments. They stick to A1+ (highest rating for money market instrument). These instruments are more liquid and they are within 1 year maturity. In other categories, funds can invest in longer-maturity papers as long as the portfolio’s average maturity is within the cap. Of course, it is not zero risk.


  3. CA Anand Sharma

    Conservative Hybrid Funds: DSP Regular Savings Fund…
    Can you please review the fund as i am holding large exposures in it.
    I found out that this funds largest holding is KKR financial Sevices. Although it is AA rated but i am not convinced with it.

Comments are closed.

Register for FREE!

Gain instant access to more PrimeInvestor articles, researched products, and portfolios

The essence of PrimeInvestor

Register for FREE!

Gain instant access to more PrimeInvestor articles, researched products, and portfolios

Legal Disclaimer : PrimeInvestor Financial Research Pvt Ltd (with brand name PrimeInvestor) is an independent research entity offering research services on personal finance products to customers. We are a SEBI registered Research Analyst (Registration: INH200008653). The content and reports generated by the entity does not constitute or is not intended to constitute an offer to buy or sell, or a solicitation to an offer to buy or sell financial products, units or securities. All content and information are provided on an ‘as is’ basis by PrimeInvestor Financial Research Pvt Ltd. Information herein is believed to be reliable but PrimeInvestor Financial Research Pvt Ltd does not warrant its completeness or accuracy and expressly disclaims all warranties and conditions of any kind, whether express or implied. The services rendered by PrimeInvestor Financial Research Pvt Ltd are on a best-effort basis. PrimeInvestor Financial Research Pvt Ltd does not assure or guarantee the user any minimum or fixed returns. PrimeInvestor Financial Research Pvt Ltd or any of its officers, directors, partners, employees, agents, subsidiaries, affiliates or business associates will not liable for any losses, cost of damage incurred consequent upon relying on investment information, research opinions or advice or any other material/information whatsoever on the web site, reports, mails or notifications issued by PrimeInvestor Financial Research Pvt Ltd or any other agency appointed/authorised by PrimeInvestor Financial Research Pvt Ltd. Use of the above-said information is at the user’s own risk. The user must make his own investment decisions based on his specific investment objective and financial position and using such independent advisors as he believes necessary. All intellectual property rights emerging from this website, blog, and investment solutions are and shall remain with PrimeInvestor Financial Research Pvt Ltd. All material made available is meant for the user’s personal use and such user shall not resell, copy, or redistribute the newsletter or any part of it, or use it for any commercial purpose. PrimeInvestor Financial Research Pvt Ltd, or any of its officers, directors, employees, or subsidiaries have not received any compensation/ benefits whether monetary or in kind, from the AMC, company, government, bank or any other product manufacturer or third party, whose products are the subject of its research or investment information. The performance data quoted represents past performance and does not guarantee future results. Investing in financial products involves risk. Investments are subject to market risk. Please read all related documents carefully. As a condition to accessing the content and website of PrimeInvestor Financial Research Pvt Ltd, you agree to our Terms and Conditions of Use, available here. This service is not directed for access or use by anyone in a country, especially the USA, Canada or the European Union countries, where such use or access is unlawful or which may subject PrimeInvestor Financial Research Pvt Ltd or its affiliates to any registration or licensing requirement.

Aditya Birla Mutual Fund • Axis Mutual Fund  Baroda Mutual Fund BNP Paribas Mutual Fund • BOI AXA Mutual Funds Canara Robeco Mutual Fund • DSP Mutual Fund  • Edelweiss Mutual Fund
Essel Mutual FundFranklin Templeton Mutual FundHDFC Mutual FundHSBC Mutual FundICICI Mutual FundIDBI Mutual FundIDFC Mutual FundIIFL Mutual FundIndiabulls Mutual FundInvesco Mutual FundITI Mutual FundKotak Mahindra Mutual FundL&T Mutual FundLIC Mutual FundMahindra Mutual FundMirae Asset Mutual FundMotilal Oswal Mutual FundNippon India Mutual FundPGIM Mutual FundPPFAS Mutual FundQuant Mutual FundQuantum Mutual FundSahara Mutual FundSBI Mutual FundShriram Mutual FundSundaram Mutual FundTata Mutual FundsTaurus Mutual FundsUnion Mutual FundsUTI Mutual FundsYes Mutual Funds

Equity: Large Cap Funds | Mip Cap Funds | Large And Mid Cap Funds | Small Cap Mutual Funds | Contra Mutual Funds | Dividend Yield | Focused Mutual Funds | Find Top Index Funds | Best Sector Funds | Thematic Mutual Fund | Best Value Mutual Funds | Equity Linked Savings Scheme | Tax Saving Funds

Debt: Banking And PSU Funds | Corporate Bond Funds | Credit Risk Funds Mutual Funds | Dynamic Bond Funds | Floating Rate Funds | Gilt Mutual Funds India | Find Top Liquid Funds In India | Long term debt funds | Low Duration Funds Debt Funds | Medium Duration Debt Funds | Medium To Long Duration Funds | Money Market Debt Funds | Overnight Debt Funds | Short Duration Debt Funds | Ultra Short Term Debt Fund
Hybrid: Aggressive Hybrid Funds | Arbitrage Mutual Funds | Balanced Advantage Mutual Funds | Conservative Hybrid Funds | Dynamic Asset Allocation | Equity Saving Funds | Multi Asset Funds | Multi Asset Allocation
Mutual fund rolling returns by category: Balanced Advantage | Conservative Hybrid Fund | Corporate Bond | Dividend Yield | Dynamic Bond | Equity Linked Savings Scheme | Floating Rate | Index Funds | Large and Midcap fund | Large Cap Fund | Liquid funds | Low Duration | Mid Cap Fund | Multi Cap Fund | Short Duration | Small cap Fund | Solution Oriented – Childrens Fund | Ultra Short Duration

Login to your account